TransNetR: Transformer-based Residual Network for Polyp Segmentation with Multi-Center Out-of-Distribution TestingDownload PDF

Published: 04 Apr 2023, Last Modified: 07 Apr 2024MIDL 2023 PosterReaders: Everyone
Keywords: Out-of-distribution generalization, Out-of-distribution testing, Transformer, Polyp segmentation, Residual network, PolypGen
Abstract: Colonoscopy is considered the most effective screening test to detect colorectal cancer (CRC) and its precursor lesions, i.e., polyps. However, the procedure experiences high miss rates due to polyp heterogeneity and inter-observer dependency. Hence, several deep learning powered systems have been proposed considering the criticality of polyp detection and segmentation in clinical practices. Despite achieving improved outcomes, the existing automated approaches are inefficient in attaining real-time processing speed. Moreover, they suffer from a significant performance drop when evaluated on inter-patient data, especially those collected from different centers. Therefore, we intend to develop a novel real-time deep learning based architecture, Transformer based Residual network (TransNetR), for colon polyp segmentation and evaluate its diagnostic performance. The proposed architecture, TransNetR, is an encoder-decoder network that consists of a pre-trained ResNet50 as the encoder, three decoder blocks, and an upsampling layer at the end of the network. TransNetR obtains a high dice coefficient of 0.8706 and a mean Intersection over union of 0.8016 and retains a real-time processing speed of 54.60 on the Kvasir-SEG dataset. Apart from this, the major contribution of the work lies in exploring the generalizability of the TransNetR by testing the proposed algorithm on the out-of-distribution (test distribution is unknown and different from training distribution) dataset. As a use case, we tested our proposed algorithm on the PolypGen (6 unique centers) dataset and two other popular polyp segmentation benchmarking datasets. We obtained state-of-the-art performance on all three datasets during out-of-distribution testing. The source code of TransNetR is publicly available at \url{https://github.com/DebeshJha/TransNetR}.
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