- Keywords: human-agent interaction, reinforcement learning, navigation
- Abstract: Reliable AI agents should be mindful of the limits of their knowledge and consult humans when sensing that they do not have sufficient knowledge to make sound decisions. We formulate a hierarchical reinforcement learning framework for learning to decide when to request additional information from humans and what type of information would be helpful to request. Our framework extends partially-observed Markov decision processes (POMDPs) by allowing an agent to interact with an assistant to leverage their knowledge in accomplishing tasks. Results on a simulated human-assisted navigation problem demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework: aided with an interaction policy learned by our method, a navigation policy achieves up to a 7× improvement in task success rate compared to performing tasks only by itself. The interaction policy is also efficient: on average, only a quarter of all actions taken during a task execution are requests for information. We analyze benefits and challenges of learning with a hierarchical policy structure and suggest directions for future work.
- One-sentence Summary: A hierarchical reinforcement learning framework for learning when to ask questions and what to ask
- Supplementary Material: zip