- Keywords: Implicit bias, learning rate, step size, stability, Hessian, dynamical system
- TL;DR: Typical NN predictors found by SGD tend to be smoother (w.r.t. the input), as the step size increases
- Abstract: The loss terrains of over-parameterized neural networks have multiple global minima. However, it is well known that stochastic gradient descent (SGD) can stably converge only to minima that are sufficiently flat w.r.t. SGD's step size. In this paper we study the effect that this mechanism has on the function implemented by the trained model. First, we extend the existing knowledge on minima stability to non-differentiable minima, which are common in ReLU nets. We then use our stability results to study a single hidden layer univariate ReLU network. In this setting, we show that SGD is biased towards functions whose second derivative (w.r.t the input) has a bounded weighted $L_1$ norm, and this is regardless of the initialization. In particular, we show that the function implemented by the network upon convergence gets smoother as the learning rate increases. The weight multiplying the second derivative is larger around the center of the support of the training distribution, and smaller towards its boundaries, suggesting that a trained model tends to be smoother at the center of the training distribution.
- Supplementary Material: pdf
- Code Of Conduct: I certify that all co-authors of this work have read and commit to adhering to the NeurIPS Statement on Ethics, Fairness, Inclusivity, and Code of Conduct.