Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, New and enlarging lesions, longitudinal MRI, Bayesian Deep Learning.
Track: short paper
Paper Type: well-validated application
Abstract: In this paper, we develop a modified U-Net architecture to accurately segment new and enlarging lesions in longitudinal MRI, based on multi-modal MRI inputs, as well as subtrac- tion images between timepoints, in the context of large-scale clinical trial data for patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We explore whether MC-Dropout measures of uncertainty lead to confident assertions when the network output is correct, and are uncertain when incorrect, thereby permitting their integration into clinical workflows and downstream in- ference tasks.