Keywords: oversquashing, oversmoothing, graph rewiring, graph neural networks, GNN, relational GNN, spectral expansion
TL;DR: We propose a graph rewiring algorithm that prevents oversquashing in GNNs via spectral expansion while retaining the original graph via a relational structure that prevents oversmoothing.
Abstract: Graph neural networks (GNNs) are able to leverage the structure of graph data by passing messages along the edges of the graph. While this allows GNNs to learn features depending on the graph structure, for certain graph topologies it leads to inefficient information propagation and a problem known as oversquashing. This has recently been linked with the curvature and spectral gap of the graph. On the other hand, adding edges to the message-passing graph can lead to increasingly similar node representations and a problem known as oversmoothing. We propose a computationally efficient algorithm that prevents oversquashing by systematically adding edges to the graph based on spectral expansion. We combine this with a relational architecture, which lets the GNN preserve the original graph structure and provably prevents oversmoothing. We find experimentally that our algorithm outperforms existing graph rewiring methods in several graph classification tasks.
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