Prototype-oriented unsupervised anomaly detection for multivariate time series
Abstract: Unsupervised anomaly detection (UAD) of multivariate time series (MTS) aims to learn robust representations of normal multivariate temporal patterns. Existing UAD methods try to learn a fixed set of mappings for each MTS, entailing expensive computation and limited model adaptation. To address this pivotal issue, we propose a prototype-oriented UAD (PUAD) method under a probabilistic framework. Specifically, instead of learning the mappings for each MTS, the proposed PUAD views multiple MTSs as the distribution over a group of prototypes, which are extracted to represent a diverse set of normal patterns. To learn and regulate the prototypes, PUAD introduces a reconstruction-based unsupervised anomaly detection approach, which incorporates a prototype-oriented optimal transport method into a Transformer-powered probabilistic dynamical generative framework. Leveraging meta-learned transferable prototypes, PUAD can achieve high model adaptation capacity for new MTSs. Experiments on five public MTS datasets all verify the effectiveness of the proposed UAD method.
Submission Number: 4168