Keywords: Deep generative models, distribution estimation, low-dimensional manifold
TL;DR: We prove approximation and statistical estimation theories of deep generative models for distribution learning when the distribution is supported on a low-dimensional manifold.
Abstract: Deep generative models have experienced great empirical successes in distribution learning. Many existing experiments have demonstrated that deep generative networks can efficiently generate high-dimensional complex data from a low-dimensional easy-to-sample distribution. However, this phenomenon can not be justified by existing theories. The widely held manifold hypothesis speculates that real-world data sets, such as natural images and signals, exhibit low-dimensional geometric structures. In this paper, we take such low-dimensional data structures into consideration by assuming that data distributions are supported on a low-dimensional manifold. We prove approximation and estimation theories of deep generative networks for estimating distributions on a low-dimensional manifold under the Wasserstein-1 loss. We show that the Wasserstein-1 loss converges to zero at a fast rate depending on the intrinsic dimension instead of the ambient data dimension. Our theory leverages the low-dimensional geometric structures in data sets and justifies the practical power of deep generative models. We require no smoothness assumptions on the data distribution which is desirable in practice.
Supplementary Material: pdf