Prometheus: Inducing Fine-Grained Evaluation Capability in Language Models

Published: 16 Jan 2024, Last Modified: 09 Mar 2024ICLR 2024 posterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Code Of Ethics: I acknowledge that I and all co-authors of this work have read and commit to adhering to the ICLR Code of Ethics.
Keywords: automatic evaluation, large language models, llm-as-a-judge
Submission Guidelines: I certify that this submission complies with the submission instructions as described on
TL;DR: We are the first to train a model specifically for fine-grained evaluation capabilities that performs on-par with GPT-4.
Abstract: Recently, GPT-4 has become the de facto evaluator for long-form text generated by large language models (LLMs). However, for practitioners and researchers with large and custom evaluation tasks, GPT-4 is unreliable due to its closed-source nature, uncontrolled versioning, and prohibitive costs. In this work, we propose PROMETHEUS a fully open-source LLM that is on par with GPT-4’s evaluation capabilities when the appropriate reference materials (reference answer, score rubric) are accompanied. For this purpose, we construct a new dataset – FEEDBACK COLLECTION – that consists of 1K fine-grained score rubrics, 20K instructions, and 100K natural language feedback generated by GPT-4. Using the FEEDBACK COLLECTION, we train PROMETHEUS, a 13B evaluation-specific LLM that can assess any given response based on novel and unseen score rubrics and reference materials provided by the user. Our dataset’s versatility and diversity make our model generalize to challenging real-world criteria, such as prioritizing conciseness, child-readability, or varying levels of formality. We show that PROMETHEUS shows a stronger correlation with GPT-4 evaluation compared to ChatGPT on seven evaluation benchmarks (Two Feedback Collection testsets, MT Bench, Vicuna Bench, Flask Eval, MT Bench Human Judgment, and HHH Alignment), showing the efficacy of our model and dataset design. During human evaluation with hand-crafted score rubrics, PROMETHEUS shows a Pearson correlation of 0.897 with human evaluators, which is on par with GPT-4-0613 (0.882), and greatly outperforms ChatGPT (0.392). Remarkably, when assessing the quality of the generated feedback, PROMETHEUS demonstrates a win rate of 58.62% when compared to GPT-4 evaluation and a win rate of 79.57% when compared to ChatGPT evaluation. Our findings suggests that by adding reference materials and training on GPT-4 feedback, we can obtain effective open-source evaluator LMs.
Anonymous Url: I certify that there is no URL (e.g., github page) that could be used to find authors' identity.
Supplementary Material: zip
No Acknowledgement Section: I certify that there is no acknowledgement section in this submission for double blind review.
Primary Area: datasets and benchmarks
Submission Number: 7178