Mean-Field Assisted Deep Boltzmann Learning with Probabilistic Computers

Published: 01 Nov 2023, Last Modified: 22 Dec 2023MLNCP PosterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Keywords: Mean-Field Theory, Probabilistic computer, Boltzmann machine, Machine learning, MNIST
TL;DR: We introduce a mean-field assisted unrestricted Boltzmann Machine algorithm to be implemented probabilistic computers and Ising Machines.
Abstract: Despite their appeal as physics-inspired, energy-based and generative nature, general Boltzmann Machines (BM) are considered intractable to train. This belief led to simplified models of BMs with restricted intralayer connections or layer-by-layer training of deep BMs. Recent developments in domain-specific hardware -- specifically probabilistic computers (p-computer) with probabilistic bits (p-bit) -- may change established wisdom on the tractability of deep BMs. In this paper, we show that deep and unrestricted BMs can be trained using p-computers generating hundreds of billions of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samples per second, on sparse networks developed originally for use in D-Wave's annealers. To maximize the efficiency of learning the p-computer, we introduce two families of Mean-Field Theory assisted learning algorithms, or xMFTs (x = Naive and Hierarchical). The xMFTs are used to estimate the averages and correlations during the positive phase of the contrastive divergence (CD) algorithm and our custom-designed p-computer is used to estimate the averages and correlations in the negative phase. A custom Field-Programmable-Gate Array (FPGA) emulation of the p-computer architecture takes up to 45 billion flips per second, allowing the implementation of CD-$n$ where $n$ can be of the order of millions, unlike RBMs where $n$ is typically 1 or 2. Experiments on the full MNIST dataset with the combined algorithm show that the positive phase can be efficiently computed by xMFTs without much degradation when the negative phase is computed by the p-computer. Our algorithm can be used in other scalable Ising machines and its variants can be used to train BMs, previously thought to be intractable.
Submission Number: 17