Dense and Aligned Captions (DAC) Promote Compositional Reasoning in VL Models

Published: 21 Sept 2023, Last Modified: 02 Nov 2023NeurIPS 2023 spotlightEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Keywords: computer vision, deep learning, vision and language models
TL;DR: Improve Vision and Language models' compositional reasoning using improved captions quality and density.
Abstract: Vision and Language (VL) models offer an effective method for aligning representation spaces of images and text allowing for numerous applications such as cross-modal retrieval, visual and multi-hop question answering, captioning, and many more. However, the aligned image-text spaces learned by all the popular VL models are still suffering from the so-called 'object bias' - their representations behave as 'bags of nouns' mostly ignoring or downsizing the attributes, relations, and states of objects described/appearing in texts/images. Although some great attempts at fixing these `compositional reasoning' issues were proposed in the recent literature, the problem is still far from being solved. In this paper, we uncover two factors limiting the VL models' compositional reasoning performance. These two factors are properties of the paired VL dataset used for finetuning (or pre-training) the VL model: (i) the caption quality, or in other words 'image-alignment', of the texts; and (ii) the 'density' of the captions in the sense of mentioning all the details appearing on the image. We propose a fine-tuning approach for automatically treating these factors on a standard collection of paired VL data (CC3M). Applied to CLIP, we demonstrate its significant compositional reasoning performance increase of up to $\sim27$\% over the base model, up to $\sim20$\% over the strongest baseline, and by $6.7$\% on average. Our code is provided in the Supplementary and would be released upon acceptance.
Supplementary Material: zip
Submission Number: 1378