- Abstract: A large amount of parallel data is needed to train a strong neural machine translation (NMT) system. This is a major challenge for low-resource languages. Building on recent work on unsupervised and semi-supervised methods, we propose a multi-dual learning framework to improve the performance of NMT by using an almost infinite amount of available monolingual data and some parallel data of other languages. Since our framework involves multiple languages and components, we further propose a timing optimization method that uses reinforcement learning (RL) to optimally schedule the different components in order to avoid imbalanced training. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of our model, and confirm its superiority to existing dual learning methods.