- Keywords: Prediction error, Boosting, Encoder-decoder convolutional neural network, Inverse problem
- Abstract: Encoder-decoder convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been extensively used for various inverse problems. However, their prediction error for unseen test data is difficult to estimate a priori, since the neural networks are trained using only selected data and their architectures are largely considered blackboxes. This poses a fundamental challenge in improving the performance of neural networks. Recently, it was shown that Stein’s unbiased risk estimator (SURE) can be used as an unbiased estimator of the prediction error for denoising problems. However, the computation of the divergence term in SURE is difficult to implement in a neural network framework, and the condition to avoid trivial identity mapping is not well defined. In this paper, inspired by the finding that an encoder-decoder CNN can be expressed as a piecewise linear representation, we provide a close form expression of the unbiased estimator for the prediction error. The close form representation leads to a novel boosting scheme to prevent a neural network from converging to an identity mapping so that it can enhance the performance. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides consistent improvement in various inverse problems.