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- TL;DR: Little known fact: Invertible Neural Networks can be non-invertible; we show why, when and how to fix it.
- Abstract: Guarantees in deep learning are hard to achieve due to the interplay of flexible modeling schemes and complex tasks. Invertible neural networks (INNs), however, provide several mathematical guarantees by design, such as the ability to approximate non-linear diffeomorphisms. One less studied advantage of INNs is that they enable the design of bi-Lipschitz functions. This property has been used implicitly by various works to design generative models, memory-saving gradient computation, regularize classifiers, and solve inverse problems. In this work, we study Lipschitz constants of invertible architectures in order to investigate guarantees on stability of their inverse and forward mapping. Our analysis reveals that commonly-used INN building blocks can easily become non-invertible, leading to questionable ``exact'' log likelihood computations and training difficulties. We introduce a set of numerical analysis tools to diagnose non-invertibility in practice. Finally, based on our theoretical analysis, we show how to guarantee numerical invertibility for one of the most common INN architectures.
- Keywords: Invertible Neural Networks, Stability, Normalizing Flows, Generative Models, Evaluation of Generative Models