- Abstract: Real-time speech recognition on mobile and embedded devices is an important application of neural networks. Acoustic modeling is the fundamental part of speech recognition and is usually implemented with long short-term memory (LSTM)-based recurrent neural networks (RNNs). However, the single thread execution of an LSTM RNN is extremely slow in most embedded devices because the algorithm needs to fetch a large number of parameters from the DRAM for computing each output sample. We explore a few acoustic modeling algorithms that can be executed very efficiently on embedded devices. These algorithms reduce the overhead of memory accesses using multi-timestep parallelization that computes multiple output samples at a time by reading the parameters only once from the DRAM. The algorithms considered are the quasi RNNs (QRNNs), Gated ConvNets, and diagonalized LSTMs. In addition, we explore neural networks that equip one-dimensional (1-D) convolution at each layer of these algorithms, and by which can obtain a very large performance increase in the QRNNs and Gated ConvNets. The experiments were conducted using two tasks, one is the connectionist temporal classification (CTC)-based end-to-end speech recognition on WSJ corpus and the other is the phoneme classification on TIMIT dataset. We not only significantly increase the execution speed but also obtain a much higher accuracy, compared to LSTM RNN-based modeling. Thus, this work can be applicable not only to embedded system-based implementations but also to server-based ones.
- Keywords: Parallelization, Speech Recognition, Sequence Modeling, Recurrent Neural Network, Embedded Systems
- TL;DR: Multi-timestep parallelizable acoustic modeling with diagonal LSTM, QRNN and Gated ConvNet