- Abstract: This paper presents a novel deep learning architecture for classifying structured objects in ultrafine-grained datasets, where classes may not be clearly distinguishable by their appearance but rather by their context. We model sequences of images as linear-chain CRFs, and jointly learn the parameters from both local-visual features and neighboring class information. The visual features are learned by convolutional layers, whereas class-structure information is reparametrized by factorizing the CRF pairwise potential matrix. This forms a context-based semantic similarity space, learned alongside the visual similarities, and dramatically increases the learning capacity of contextual information. This new parametrization, however, forms a highly nonlinear objective function which is challenging to optimize. To overcome this, we develop a novel surrogate likelihood which allows for a local likelihood approximation of the original CRF with integrated batch-normalization. This model overcomes the difficulties of existing CRF methods to learn the contextual relationships thoroughly when there is a large number of classes and the data is sparse. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated on a huge dataset that contains images of retail-store product displays, and shows significantly improved results compared to linear CRF parametrization, unnormalized likelihood optimization, and RNN modeling.
- Keywords: large-scale structure prediction, likelihood approximation, deep class embedding
- TL;DR: We present a technique for ultrafine-grained, large-scale structured classification, based on CRF modeling with factorized pairwise potentials, learned as neighboring class embedding in a whitened space.