Keywords: Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning, Deep Reinforcement Learning
TL;DR: We propose Mind-aware Multi-agent Management Reinforcement Learning (M^3RL) for training a manager to motivate self-interested workers to achieve optimal collaboration by assigning suitable contracts to them.
Abstract: Most of the prior work on multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) achieves optimal collaboration by directly learning a policy for each agent to maximize a common reward. In this paper, we aim to address this from a different angle. In particular, we consider scenarios where there are self-interested agents (i.e., worker agents) which have their own minds (preferences, intentions, skills, etc.) and can not be dictated to perform tasks they do not want to do. For achieving optimal coordination among these agents, we train a super agent (i.e., the manager) to manage them by first inferring their minds based on both current and past observations and then initiating contracts to assign suitable tasks to workers and promise to reward them with corresponding bonuses so that they will agree to work together. The objective of the manager is to maximize the overall productivity as well as minimize payments made to the workers for ad-hoc worker teaming. To train the manager, we propose Mind-aware Multi-agent Management Reinforcement Learning (M^3RL), which consists of agent modeling and policy learning. We have evaluated our approach in two environments, Resource Collection and Crafting, to simulate multi-agent management problems with various task settings and multiple designs for the worker agents. The experimental results have validated the effectiveness of our approach in modeling worker agents' minds online, and in achieving optimal ad-hoc teaming with good generalization and fast adaptation.