- Keywords: Language emergence, Conceptual grounding, Reflection, Cognitive bias
- Abstract: Owing to language emergence, human beings have been able to understand the intentions of others, generate common concepts, and extend new concepts. Artificial intelligence researchers have not only predicted words and sentences statistically in machine learning, but also created a language system by communicating with the machine itself. However, strong constraints are exhibited in current studies (supervisor signals and rewards exist, or the concepts were fixed on only a point), thus hindering the emergence of real-world languages. In this study, we improved Batali (1998) and Choi et al. (2018)’s research and attempted language emergence under conditions of low constraints such as human language generation. We included the bias that exists in humans as an “internal reflection function” into the system. Irrespective of function, messages corresponding to the label could be generated. However, through qualitative and quantitative analysis, we confirmed that the internal reflection function caused “overlearning” and different structuring of message patterns. This result suggested that the internal reflection function performed effectively in creating a grounding language from raw images with an under-restricted situation such as human language generation.