Abstract: Traditional machine learning follows a close-set assumption that the training and test set share the same label space. While in many practical scenarios, it is inevitable that some test samples belong to unknown classes (open-set). To fix this issue, Open-Set Recognition (OSR), whose goal is to make correct predictions on both close-set samples and open-set samples, has attracted rising attention. In this direction, the vast majority of literature focuses on the pattern of open-set samples. However, how to evaluate model performance in this challenging task is still unsolved. In this paper, a systematic analysis reveals that most existing metrics are essentially inconsistent with the aforementioned goal of OSR: (1) For metrics extended from close-set classification, such as Open-set F-score, Youden's index, and Normalized Accuracy, a poor open-set prediction can escape from a low performance score with a superior close-set prediction. (2) Novelty detection AUC, which measures the ranking performance between close-set and open-set samples, ignores the close-set performance. To fix these issues, we propose a novel metric named OpenAUC. Compared with existing metrics, OpenAUC enjoys a concise pairwise formulation that evaluates open-set performance and close-set performance in a coupling manner. Further analysis shows that OpenAUC is free from the aforementioned inconsistency properties. Finally, an end-to-end learning method is proposed to minimize the OpenAUC risk, and the experimental results on popular benchmark datasets speak to its effectiveness.
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