- Abstract: Adversarial examples are a pervasive phenomenon of machine learning models where seemingly imperceptible perturbations to the input lead to misclassifications for otherwise statistically accurate models. We propose a geometric framework, drawing on tools from the manifold reconstruction literature, to analyze the high-dimensional geometry of adversarial examples. In particular, we highlight the importance of codimension: for low-dimensional data manifolds embedded in high-dimensional space there are many directions off the manifold in which to construct adversarial examples. Adversarial examples are a natural consequence of learning a decision boundary that classifies the low-dimensional data manifold well, but classifies points near the manifold incorrectly. Using our geometric framework we prove (1) a tradeoff between robustness under different norms, (2) that adversarial training in balls around the data is sample inefficient, and (3) sufficient sampling conditions under which nearest neighbor classifiers and ball-based adversarial training are robust.
- Keywords: adversarial examples, high-dimensional geometry
- TL;DR: We present a geometric framework for proving robustness guarantees and highlight the importance of codimension in adversarial examples.