Maestro: Uncovering Low-Rank Structures via Trainable Decomposition
Keywords: Efficient Machine Learning, Low-rank methods, Ordered Dropout
TL;DR: Maestro is a framework for trainable low-rank layers that leverages ordered dropout to lower computational and memory footprint.
Abstract: Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have been a large driver and enabler for AI breakthroughs in recent years. These models have been getting larger in their attempt to become more accurate and tackle new upcoming use-cases, including AR/VR and intelligent assistants. However, the training process of such large models is a costly and time-consuming process, which typically yields a single model to fit all targets. To mitigate this, various techniques have been proposed in the literature, including pruning, sparsification or quantization of the model weights and updates. While able to achieve high compression rates, they often incur computational overheads or accuracy penalties. Alternatively, factorization methods have been leveraged to incorporate low-rank compression in the training process. Similarly, such techniques (e.g., SVD) frequently rely on the computationally expensive decomposition of layers and are potentially sub-optimal for non-linear models, such as DNNs. In this work, we take a further step in designing efficient low-rank models and propose Maestro, a framework for trainable low-rank layers. Instead of regularly applying a priori decompositions such as SVD, the low-rank structure is built into the training process through a generalized variant of Ordered Dropout. This method imposes an importance ordering via sampling on the decomposed DNN structure. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that our method recovers the SVD decomposition of linear mapping on uniformly distributed data and PCA for linear autoencoders. We further apply our technique on DNNs and empirically illustrate that Maestro enables the extraction of lower footprint models that preserve model performance while allowing for graceful accuracy-latency tradeoff for the deployment to devices of different capabilities.
Submission Number: 5