- Abstract: Neural networks trained only to optimize for training accuracy can often be fooled by adversarial examples --- slightly perturbed inputs misclassified with high confidence. Verification of networks enables us to gauge their vulnerability to such adversarial examples. We formulate verification of piecewise-linear neural networks as a mixed integer program. On a representative task of finding minimum adversarial distortions, our verifier is two to three orders of magnitude quicker than the state-of-the-art. We achieve this computational speedup via tight formulations for non-linearities, as well as a novel presolve algorithm that makes full use of all information available. The computational speedup allows us to verify properties on convolutional and residual networks with over 100,000 ReLUs --- several orders of magnitude more than networks previously verified by any complete verifier. In particular, we determine for the first time the exact adversarial accuracy of an MNIST classifier to perturbations with bounded l-∞ norm ε=0.1: for this classifier, we find an adversarial example for 4.38% of samples, and a certificate of robustness to norm-bounded perturbations for the remainder. Across all robust training procedures and network architectures considered, and for both the MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets, we are able to certify more samples than the state-of-the-art and find more adversarial examples than a strong first-order attack.
- Keywords: verification, adversarial robustness, adversarial examples, deep learning
- TL;DR: We efficiently verify the robustness of deep neural models with over 100,000 ReLUs, certifying more samples than the state-of-the-art and finding more adversarial examples than a strong first-order attack.