Keywords: local optimality, second-order stationary point, escaping saddle points, nondifferentiability, ReLU, empirical risk
TL;DR: A theoretical algorithm for testing local optimality and extracting descent directions at nondifferentiable points of empirical risks of one-hidden-layer ReLU networks.
Abstract: We provide a theoretical algorithm for checking local optimality and escaping saddles at nondifferentiable points of empirical risks of two-layer ReLU networks. Our algorithm receives any parameter value and returns: local minimum, second-order stationary point, or a strict descent direction. The presence of M data points on the nondifferentiability of the ReLU divides the parameter space into at most 2^M regions, which makes analysis difficult. By exploiting polyhedral geometry, we reduce the total computation down to one convex quadratic program (QP) for each hidden node, O(M) (in)equality tests, and one (or a few) nonconvex QP. For the last QP, we show that our specific problem can be solved efficiently, in spite of nonconvexity. In the benign case, we solve one equality constrained QP, and we prove that projected gradient descent solves it exponentially fast. In the bad case, we have to solve a few more inequality constrained QPs, but we prove that the time complexity is exponential only in the number of inequality constraints. Our experiments show that either benign case or bad case with very few inequality constraints occurs, implying that our algorithm is efficient in most cases.