- Decision: reject
- Abstract: Renormalization group methods, which analyze the way in which the effective behavior of a system depends on the scale at which it is observed, are key to modern condensed-matter theory and particle physics. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast the ideas behind the renormalization group (RG) on the one hand and deep machine learning on the other, where depth and scale play a similar role. In order to illustrate this connection, we review a recent numerical method based on the RG---the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA)---and show how it can be converted into a learning algorithm based on a generative hierarchical Bayesian network model. Under the assumption---common in physics---that the distribution to be learned is fully characterized by local correlations, this algorithm involves only explicit evaluation of probabilities, hence doing away with sampling.