Universal Approximation Under Constraints is Possible with TransformersDownload PDF

29 Sept 2021, 00:34 (modified: 08 Feb 2022, 19:50)ICLR 2022 SpotlightReaders: Everyone
Keywords: Constrained Universal Approximation, Probabilistic Attention, Transformer Networks, Geometric Deep Learning, Measurable Maximum Theorem, Non-Affine Random Projections, Optimal Transport.
Abstract: Many practical problems need the output of a machine learning model to satisfy a set of constraints, $K$. Nevertheless, there is no known guarantee that classical neural network architectures can exactly encode constraints while simultaneously achieving universality. We provide a quantitative constrained universal approximation theorem which guarantees that for any non-convex compact set $K$ and any continuous function $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow K$, there is a probabilistic transformer $\hat{F}$ whose randomized outputs all lie in $K$ and whose expected output uniformly approximates $f$. Our second main result is a ``deep neural version'' of Berge's Maximum Theorem (1963). The result guarantees that given an objective function $L$, a constraint set $K$, and a family of soft constraint sets, there is a probabilistic transformer $\hat{F}$ that approximately minimizes $L$ and whose outputs belong to $K$; moreover, $\hat{F}$ approximately satisfies the soft constraints. Our results imply the first universal approximation theorem for classical transformers with exact convex constraint satisfaction. They also yield that a chart-free universal approximation theorem for Riemannian manifold-valued functions subject to suitable geodesically convex constraints.
One-sentence Summary: We provide the first universal approximation theorem with exact non-convex constraint satisfaction, and we introduce probabilistic transformer networks to do so.
Supplementary Material: zip
22 Replies

Loading