TL;DR: We benchmark parameter-efficient NLP methods on dense vision tasks and propose a more parameter-efficient multi-task adaptation method.
Abstract: Adapting large-scale pretrained models to various downstream tasks via fine-tuning is a standard method in machine learning. Recently, parameter-efficient fine-tuning methods have shown promise in adapting a pretrained model to different tasks while training only a few parameters. Despite their success, most existing methods are proposed in Natural Language Processing tasks with language Transformers, and adaptation to Computer Vision tasks with Vision Transformers remains under-explored, especially for dense vision tasks. Further, in multi-task settings, individually fine-tuning and storing separate models for different tasks is inefficient. In this work, we provide an extensive single- and multi-task parameter-efficient benchmark and examine existing parameter-efficient fine-tuning NLP methods for vision tasks. Our results on four different dense vision tasks showed that existing methods cannot be efficiently integrated due to the hierarchical nature of the Hierarchical Vision Transformers. To overcome this issue, we propose Polyhistor and Polyhistor-Lite, consisting of Decomposed HyperNetworks and Layer-wise Scaling Kernels, to share information across different tasks with a few trainable parameters. This leads to favorable performance improvements against existing parameter-efficient methods while using fewer trainable parameters. Specifically, Polyhistor achieves competitive accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art while only using less than 10% of their trainable parameters. Furthermore, our methods show larger performance gains when large networks and more pretraining data are used.
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