Keywords: Multi-Fidelity Active Learning, Budget Constrint, High-dimensional Outputs, Physical Simulation, Computational Physics
TL;DR: We proposed a budget-aware, batch multi-fdielity active learning algorithm for high dimensional outputs that are common for physical simulations and related applications.
Abstract: Learning functions with high-dimensional outputs is critical in many applications, such as physical simulation and engineering design. However, collecting training examples for these applications is often costly, e.g., by running numerical solvers. The recent work (Li et al., 2022) proposes the first multi-fidelity active learning approach for high-dimensional outputs, which can acquire examples at different fidelities to reduce the cost while improving the learning performance. However, this method only queries at one pair of fidelity and input at a time, and hence has a risk of bringing in strongly correlated examples to reduce the learning efficiency. In this paper, we propose Batch Multi-Fidelity Active Learning with Budget Constraints (BMFAL-BC), which can promote the diversity of training examples to improve the benefit-cost ratio, while respecting a given budget constraint for batch queries. Hence, our method can be more practically useful. Specifically, we propose a novel batch acquisition function that measures the mutual information between a batch of multi-fidelity queries and the target function, so as to penalize highly correlated queries and encourages diversity. The optimization of the batch acquisition function is challenging in that it involves a combinatorial search over many fidelities while subject to the budget constraint. To address this challenge, we develop a weighted greedy algorithm that can sequentially identify each (fidelity, input) pair, while achieving a near $(1 - 1/e)$-approximation of the optimum. We show the advantage of our method in several computational physics and engineering applications.
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