Keywords: Graph Convolutional Networks, Homophily Assumption, Propagation Mechanism
Abstract: Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs), aiming to obtain the representation of a node by aggregating its neighbors, have demonstrated great power in tackling various analytics tasks on graph (network) data. The remarkable performance of GCNs typically relies on the homophily assumption of networks, while such assumption cannot always be satisfied, since the heterophily or randomness are also widespread in real-world. This gives rise to one fundamental question: whether networks with different structural properties should adopt different propagation mechanisms? In this paper, we first conduct an experimental investigation. Surprisingly, we discover that there are actually segmentation rules for the propagation mechanism, i.e., 1-hop, 2-hop and $k$-nearest neighbor ($k$NN) neighbors are more suitable as neighborhoods of network with complete homophily, complete heterophily and randomness, respectively. However, the real-world networks are complex, and may present diverse structural properties, e.g., the network dominated by homophily may contain a small amount of randomness. So can we reasonably utilize these segmentation rules to design a universal propagation mechanism independent of the network structural assumption? To tackle this challenge, we develop a new universal GCN framework, namely U-GCN. It first introduces a multi-type convolution to extract information from 1-hop, 2-hop and $k$NN networks simultaneously, and then designs a discriminative aggregation to sufficiently fuse them aiming to given learning objectives. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of U-GCN over state-of-the-arts. The code and data are available at https://github.com/jindi-tju.
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