TPMIL: Trainable Prototype Enhanced Multiple Instance Learning for Whole Slide Image ClassificationDownload PDF

Published: 04 Apr 2023, Last Modified: 25 Jun 2024MIDL 2023 PosterReaders: Everyone
Keywords: Whole Slide Image, Multiple Instance Learning, Prototype Learning
Abstract: Digital pathology based on whole slide images (WSIs) plays a key role in cancer diagnosis and clinical practice. Due to the high resolution of the WSI and the unavailability of patch-level annotations, WSI classification is usually formulated as a weakly supervised problem, which relies on multiple instance learning (MIL) based on patches of a WSI. In this paper, we aim to learn an optimal patch-level feature space by integrating prototype learning with MIL. To this end, we develop a Trainable Prototype enhanced deep MIL (TPMIL) framework for weakly supervised WSI classification. In contrast to the conventional methods which rely on a certain number of selected patches for feature space refinement, we softly cluster all the instances by allocating them to their corresponding prototypes. Additionally, our method is able to reveal the correlations between different tumor subtypes through distances between corresponding trained prototypes. More importantly, TPMIL also enables to provide a more accurate interpretability based on the distance of the instances from the trained prototypes which serves as an alternative to the conventional attention score-based interpretability. We test our method on two WSI datasets and it achieves a new SOTA. GitHub repository:
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