Preference Transformer: Modeling Human Preferences using Transformers for RLDownload PDF

Published: 01 Feb 2023, Last Modified: 02 Mar 2023ICLR 2023 posterReaders: Everyone
Keywords: preference-based reinforcement learning, human-in-the-loop reinforcement learning, deep reinforcement learning
TL;DR: We introduce a transformer-based architecture for preference-based RL considering non-Markovian rewards.
Abstract: Preference-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides a framework to train agents using human preferences between two behaviors. However, preference-based RL has been challenging to scale since it requires a large amount of human feedback to learn a reward function aligned with human intent. In this paper, we present Preference Transformer, a neural architecture that models human preferences using transformers. Unlike prior approaches assuming human judgment is based on the Markovian rewards which contribute to the decision equally, we introduce a new preference model based on the weighted sum of non-Markovian rewards. We then design the proposed preference model using a transformer architecture that stacks causal and bidirectional self-attention layers. We demonstrate that Preference Transformer can solve a variety of control tasks using real human preferences, while prior approaches fail to work. We also show that Preference Transformer can induce a well-specified reward and attend to critical events in the trajectory by automatically capturing the temporal dependencies in human decision-making. Code is available on the project website:
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