Conceptualizing Treatment Leakage in Text-based Causal InferenceDownload PDF


08 Mar 2022 (modified: 05 May 2023)NAACL 2022 Conference Blind SubmissionReaders: Everyone
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Paper Type: Short paper (up to four pages of content + unlimited references and appendices)
Abstract: Causal inference methods that control for text-based confounders are becoming increasingly important in the social sciences and other disciplines where text is readily available. However, these methods rely on a critical assumption that there is no treatment leakage: that is, the text only contains information about the confounder and no information about treatment assignment. When this assumption does not hold, methods that control for text to adjust for confounders face the problem of post-treatment (collider) bias. However, the assumption that there is no treatment leakage may be unrealistic in real-world situations involving text, as human language is rich and flexible. Language appearing in a public policy document or health records may refer to the future and the past simultaneously, and thereby reveal information about the treatment assignment. In this article, we define the treatment-leakage problem, and discuss the identification as well as the estimation challenges it raises. Second, we delineate the conditions under which leakage can be addressed by removing the treatment-related signal from the text in a pre-processing step we define as text distillation. Lastly, using simulation, we show how treatment leakage introduces a bias in estimates of the average treatment effect (ATE) and how text distillation can mitigate this bias.
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Copyright Consent Signature (type Name Or NA If Not Transferrable): Richard Johansson
Copyright Consent Name And Address: University of Gothenburg, Box 100, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
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