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- Abstract: Domain shifts are frequently encountered in real-world scenarios. In this paper, we consider the problem of domain-invariant deep learning by explicitly modeling domain shifts with only a small amount of domain-specific parameters in a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). By exploiting the observation that a convolutional filter can be well approximated as a linear combination of a small set of basis elements, we show for the first time, both empirically and theoretically, that domain shifts can be effectively handled by decomposing a regular convolutional layer into a domain-specific basis layer and a domain-shared basis coefficient layer, while both remain convolutional. An input channel will now first convolve spatially only with each respective domain-specific basis to ``absorb" domain variations, and then output channels are linearly combined using common basis coefficients trained to promote shared semantics across domains. We use toy examples, rigorous analysis, and real-world examples to show the framework's effectiveness in cross-domain performance and domain adaptation. With the proposed architecture, we need only a small set of basis elements to model each additional domain, which brings a negligible amount of additional parameters, typically a few hundred.