Abstract: Self-supervised learning of graph neural networks (GNNs) aims to learn an accurate representation of the graphs in an unsupervised manner, to obtain transferable representations of them for diverse downstream tasks. Predictive learning and contrastive learning are the two most prevalent approaches for graph self-supervised learning. However, they have their own drawbacks. While the predictive learning methods can learn the contextual relationships between neighboring nodes and edges, they cannot learn global graph-level similarities. Contrastive learning, while it can learn global graph-level similarities, its objective to maximize the similarity between two differently perturbed graphs may result in representations that cannot discriminate two similar graphs with different properties. To tackle such limitations, we propose a framework that aims to learn the exact discrepancy between the original and the perturbed graphs, coined as Discrepancy-based Self-supervised LeArning (D-SLA). Specifically, we create multiple perturbations of the given graph with varying degrees of similarity, and train the model to predict whether each graph is the original graph or the perturbed one. Moreover, we further aim to accurately capture the amount of discrepancy for each perturbed graph using the graph edit distance. We validate our D-SLA on various graph-related downstream tasks, including molecular property prediction, protein function prediction, and link prediction tasks, on which ours largely outperforms relevant baselines.