- Keywords: Representation Metrics, Adversarial Machine Learning, One-Pixel Attack, DeepFool, CapsNet
- Abstract: Neural networks have been shown vulnerable to adversarial samples. Slightly perturbed input images are able to change the classification of accurate models, showing that the representation learned is not as good as previously thought. To aid the development of better neural networks, it would be important to evaluate to what extent are current neural networks' representations capturing the existing features. Here we propose a way to evaluate the representation quality of neural networks using a novel type of zero-shot test, entitled Raw Zero-Shot. The main idea lies in the fact that some features are present on unknown classes and that unknown classes can be defined as a combination of previous learned features without representation bias (a bias towards representation that maps only current set of input-outputs and their boundary). To evaluate the soft-labels of unknown classes, two metrics are proposed. One is based on clustering validation techniques (Davies-Bouldin Index) and the other is based on soft-label distance of a given correct soft-label. Experiments show that such metrics are in accordance with the robustness to adversarial attacks and might serve as a guidance to build better models as well as be used in loss functions to create new types of neural networks. Interestingly, the results suggests that dynamic routing networks such as CapsNet have better representation while current deeper DNNs are trading off representation quality for accuracy.
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