Abstract: Automatic detection of anatomical landmarks is an important step for a wide range of applications in medical image analysis. Manual annotation of such landmarks is a tedious task and prone to observer errors. In this paper, we evaluate novel deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) strategies to train agents that can precisely localize target landmarks in medical scans. An artificial RL agent learns to identify the optimal path to the point of interest by interacting with an environment, in our case 3D images. Furthermore, we investigate the use of fixed- and multi-scale search strategies with hierarchical action steps in a coarse-to-fine manner. Multiple Deep Q-Network (DQN) based architectures are experimented in training of the proposed RL agents achieving good results for detecting multiple landmarks using a challenging fetal head ultrasound dataset.
Keywords: Reinforcement Learning, Deep Learning, Deep Q-Network, DQN, Anatomical Landmark Localization, Object Detection
Author Affiliation: Imperial College London