- TL;DR: We present a scalable algorithm for data valuation, study its utility both empirically and theoretically
- Abstract: This paper focuses on valuating training data for supervised learning tasks and studies the Shapley value, a data value notion originated in cooperative game theory. The Shapley value defines a unique value distribution scheme that satisfies a set of appealing properties desired by a data value notion. However, the Shapley value requires exponential complexity to calculate exactly. Existing approximation algorithms, although achieving great improvement over the exact algorithm, relies on retraining models for multiple times, thus remaining limited when applied to larger-scale learning tasks and real-world datasets. In this work, we develop a simple and efficient algorithm to estimate the Shapley value with complexity independent with the model size. The key idea is to approximate the model via a $K$-nearest neighbor ($K$NN) classifier, which has a locality structure that can lead to efficient Shapley value calculation. We evaluate the utility of the values produced by the $K$NN proxies in various settings, including label noise correction, watermark detection, data summarization, active data acquisition, and domain adaption. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our algorithm achieves at least comparable utility to the values produced by existing algorithms while significant efficiency improvement. Moreover, we theoretically analyze the Shapley value and justify its advantage over the leave-one-out error as a data value measure.
- Keywords: Data valuation, machine learning