Keywords: unsupervised representation learning, contrastive learning, consistency regularization
Abstract: Contrastive learning has recently been a core for unsupervised visual representation learning. Without human annotation, the common practice is to perform an instance discrimination task: Given a query image crop, label crops from the same image as positives, and crops from other randomly sampled images as negatives. An important limitation of this label assignment is that it can not reflect the heterogeneous similarity of the query crop to crops from other images, but regarding them as equally negative. To address this issue, inspired by consistency regularization in semi-supervised learning, we propose Consistent Contrast (CO2), which introduces a consistency term into unsupervised contrastive learning framework. The consistency term takes the similarity of the query crop to crops from other images as unlabeled, and the corresponding similarity of a positive crop as a pseudo label. It then encourages consistency between these two similarities. Empirically, CO2 improves Momentum Contrast (MoCo) by 2.9% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet linear protocol, 3.8% and 1.1% top-5 accuracy on 1% and 10% labeled semi-supervised settings. It also transfers to image classification, object detection, and semantic segmentation on PASCAL VOC. This shows that CO2 learns better visual representations for downstream tasks.
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One-sentence Summary: Introduce a consistency regularization term into unsupervised contrastive learning framework.