Deep Declarative Dynamic Time Warping for End-to-End Learning of Alignment PathsDownload PDF

Published: 01 Feb 2023, Last Modified: 14 Jul 2024ICLR 2023 posterReaders: Everyone
Keywords: implicit differentiation, sequence matching, time series, visual localization, music
TL;DR: We introduce a novel differentiable dynamic time warping layer based on continuous time warps and implicit differentiation.
Abstract: This paper addresses learning end-to-end models for time series data that include a temporal alignment step via dynamic time warping (DTW). Existing approaches to differentiable DTW either differentiate through a fixed warping path or apply a differentiable relaxation to the min operator found in the recursive steps used to solve the DTW problem. We instead propose a DTW layer based around bi-level optimisation and deep declarative networks, which we name DecDTW. By formulating DTW as a continuous, inequality constrained optimisation problem, we can compute gradients for the solution of the optimal alignment (with respect to the underlying time series) using implicit differentiation. An interesting byproduct of this formulation is that DecDTW outputs the optimal warping path between two time series as opposed to a soft approximation, recoverable from Soft-DTW. We show that this property is particularly useful for applications where downstream loss functions are defined on the optimal alignment path itself. This naturally occurs, for instance, when learning to improve the accuracy of predicted alignments against ground truth alignments. We evaluate DecDTW on two such applications, namely the audio-to-score alignment task in music information retrieval and the visual place recognition task in robotics, demonstrating state-of-the-art results in both.
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