- Keywords: reinforcement learning, unsupervised reinforcement learning
- Abstract: Identifying controllable aspects of the environment has proven to be an extraordinary intrinsic motivator to reinforcement learning agents. Despite repeatedly achieving State-of-the-Art results, this approach has only been studied as a proxy to a reward-based task and has not yet been evaluated on its own. We show that solutions relying on action-prediction fail to model critical controlled events. Humans, on the other hand, assign blame to their actions to decide what they controlled. This work proposes Controlled Effect Network (CEN), an unsupervised method based on counterfactual measures of blame to identify effects on the environment controlled by the agent. CEN is evaluated in a wide range of environments showing that it can accurately identify controlled effects. Moreover, we demonstrate CEN's capabilities as intrinsic motivator by integrating it in the state-of-the-art exploration method, achieving substantially better performance than action-prediction models.
- One-sentence Summary: Unsupervised learning of controlled effects using counterfactual measures of Blame