Keywords: Gradient compression, Distributed optimization
Abstract: Gradient compression is a widely-established remedy to tackle the communication bottleneck in distributed training of large deep neural networks (DNNs). Under the error-feedback framework, Top-$k$ sparsification, sometimes with $k$ as little as 0.1% of the gradient size, enables training to the same model quality as the uncompressed case for a similar iteration count. From the optimization perspective, we find that Top-$k$ is the communication-optimal sparsifier given a per-iteration $k$ element budget. We argue that to further the benefits of gradient sparsification, especially for DNNs, a different perspective is necessary — one that moves from per-iteration optimality to consider optimality for the entire training. We identify that the total error — the sum of the compression errors for all iterations — encapsulates sparsification throughout training. Then, we propose a communication complexity model that minimizes the total error under a communication budget for the entire training. We find that the hard-threshold sparsifier, a variant of the Top-$k$ sparsifier with $k$ determined by a constant hard-threshold, is the optimal sparsifier for this model. Motivated by this, we provide convex and non-convex convergence analyses for the hard-threshold sparsifier with error-feedback. We show that hard-threshold has the same asymptotic convergence and linear speedup property as SGD in both the case, and unlike with Top-$k$ sparsifier, has no impact due to data-heterogeneity. Our diverse experiments on various DNNs and a logistic regression model demonstrate that the hard-threshold sparsifier is more communication-efficient than Top-$k$.
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