- Keywords: Deep Metric Learning, Representation Learning, Transfer Learning, Zero-Shot Generalization, Out-of-Distribution Generalization
- TL;DR: We propose a new benchmark, ooDML, to study the zero-shot generalization capabilites of Deep Metric Learning (DML) models under much more diverse and more challenging distribution shifts, proposing novel insights into generalization aspects in DML.
- Abstract: Deep Metric Learning (DML) aims to find representations suitable for zero-shot transfer to a priori unknown test distributions. However, common evaluation protocols only test a single, fixed data split in which train and test classes are assigned randomly. More realistic evaluations should consider a broad spectrum of distribution shifts with potentially varying degree and difficulty. In this work, we systematically construct train-test splits of increasing difficulty and present the ooDML benchmark to characterize generalization under out-of-distribution shifts in DML. ooDML is designed to probe the generalization performance on much more challenging, diverse train-to-test distribution shifts. Based on our new benchmark, we conduct a thorough empirical analysis of state-of-the-art DML methods. We find that while generalization tends to consistently degrade with difficulty, some methods are better at retaining performance as the distribution shift increases. Finally, we propose few-shot DML as an efficient way to consistently improve generalization in response to unknown test shifts presented in ooDML.
- Supplementary Material: pdf
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