SMILE: Sample-to-feature Mixup for Efficient Transfer Learning

Published: 30 Jan 2023, Last Modified: 28 Feb 2023Accepted by TMLREveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Abstract: To improve the performance of deep learning, mixup has been proposed to force the neural networks favoring simple linear behaviors in-between training samples. Performing mixup for transfer learning with pre-trained models however is not that simple,  a high capacity pre-trained model with a large fully-connected (FC) layer could easily overfit to the target dataset even with samples-to-labels mixed up. In this work, we propose SMILE — Sample-to-feature Mixup for Efficient Transfer Learning. With mixed images as inputs, SMILE regularizes the outputs of CNN feature extractors to learn from the mixed feature vectors of inputs, in addition to the mixed labels. SMILE incorporates a mean teacher to provide the surrogate "ground truth" for mixed feature vectors. The sample-to-feature mixup regularizer is imposed both on deep features for the target domain and classifier outputs for the source domain, bounding the linearity in-between samples for target tasks. Extensive experiments have been done to verify the performance improvement made by SMILE, in comparisons with a wide spectrum of transfer learning algorithms, including fine-tuning, L$^2$-SP, DELTA, BSS, RIFLE, Co-Tuning and RegSL, even with mixup strategies combined. Ablation studies show that the vanilla sample-to-label mixup strategies could marginally increase the linearity in-between training samples but lack of generalizability, while SMILE significantly improves the mixup effects in both label and feature spaces with both training and testing datasets. The empirical observations backup our design intuition and purposes.
Submission Length: Regular submission (no more than 12 pages of main content)
Assigned Action Editor: ~Mingsheng_Long2
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
Submission Number: 407