**Keywords:**Deep Learning, Memorization, Multi-layered Perceptrons

**TL;DR:**We prove that multilayered threshold networks can be efficient memorizers, and offer and exponential improvement to existing bounds.

**Abstract:**It is well known that modern deep neural networks are powerful enough to memorize datasets even when the labels have been randomized. Recently, Vershynin(2020) settled a long standing question by Baum(1988), proving that deep threshold networks can memorize $n$ points in $d$ dimensions using $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(e^{1/\delta^2}+\sqrt{n})$ neurons and $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(e^{1/\delta^2}(d+\sqrt{n})+n)$ weights, where $\delta$ is the minimum distance between the points. In this work, we improve the dependence on $\delta$ from exponential to almost linear, proving that $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(\frac{1}{\delta}+\sqrt{n})$ neurons and $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(\frac{d}{\delta}+n)$ weights are sufficient. Our construction uses Gaussian random weights only in the first layer, while all the subsequent layers use binary or integer weights. We also prove new lower bounds by connecting memorization in neural networks to the purely geometric problem of separating $n$ points on a sphere using hyperplanes.

**Supplementary Material:**pdf

**Code Of Conduct:**I certify that all co-authors of this work have read and commit to adhering to the NeurIPS Statement on Ethics, Fairness, Inclusivity, and Code of Conduct.

13 Replies

Loading