Evaluating Post-hoc Explanations for Graph Neural Networks via Robustness Analysis

Published: 21 Sept 2023, Last Modified: 02 Nov 2023NeurIPS 2023 oralEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Keywords: Post-hoc Explainability, Explanation Evaluation, Graph Neural Network, Robustness Analysis
TL;DR: This work draws inspiration from the notion of adversarial robustness and introduces a novel evaluation metric, termed OOD-resistant Adversarial Robustness (OAR).
Abstract: This work studies the evaluation of explaining graph neural networks (GNNs), which is crucial to the credibility of post-hoc explainability in practical usage. Conventional evaluation metrics, and even explanation methods -- which mainly follow the paradigm of feeding the explanatory subgraph and measuring output difference -- always suffer from the notorious out-of-distribution (OOD) issue. In this work, we endeavor to confront the issue by introducing a novel evaluation metric, termed **O**OD-resistant **A**dversarial **R**obustness (OAR). Specifically, we draw inspiration from the notion of adversarial robustness and evaluate post-hoc explanation subgraphs by calculating their robustness under attack. On top of that, an elaborate OOD reweighting block is inserted into the pipeline to confine the evaluation process to the original data distribution. For applications involving large datasets, we further devise a **Sim**plified version of **OAR** (SimOAR), which achieves a significant improvement in computational efficiency at the cost of a small amount of performance. Extensive empirical studies validate the effectiveness of our OAR and SimOAR.
Submission Number: 4916