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Laurens van der Maaten
Jan 16, 2013 (modified: Jan 16, 2013)ICLR 2013 conference submissionreaders: everyone
Abstract:The paper presents an O(N log N)-implementation of t-SNE -- an embedding technique that is commonly used for the visualization of high-dimensional data in scatter plots and that normally runs in O(N^2). The new implementation uses vantage-point trees to compute sparse pairwise similarities between the input data objects, and it uses a variant of the Barnes-Hut algorithm - an algorithm used by astronomers to perform N-body simulations - to approximate the forces between the corresponding points in the embedding. Our experiments show that the new algorithm, called Barnes-Hut-SNE, leads to substantial computational advantages over standard t-SNE, and that it makes it possible to learn embeddings of data sets with millions of objects.
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