Keywords: satisfiability problems, model counting, graphical model, Belief Propagation, graph neural network, marginal inference, partition function estimation
TL;DR: We propose a general neural framework for solving SAT and #SAT problems by modeling satisfiability problems as probabilistic inference.
Abstract: We present the Neural Satisfiability Network (NSNet), a general neural framework that models satisfiability problems as probabilistic inference and meanwhile exhibits proper explainability. Inspired by the Belief Propagation (BP), NSNet uses a novel graph neural network (GNN) to parameterize BP in the latent space, where its hidden representations maintain the same probabilistic interpretation as BP. NSNet can be flexibly configured to solve both SAT and #SAT problems by applying different learning objectives. For SAT, instead of directly predicting a satisfying assignment, NSNet performs marginal inference among all satisfying solutions, which we empirically find is more feasible for neural networks to learn. With the estimated marginals, a satisfying assignment can be efficiently generated by rounding and executing a stochastic local search. For #SAT, NSNet performs approximate model counting by learning the Bethe approximation of the partition function. Our evaluations show that NSNet achieves competitive results in terms of inference accuracy and time efficiency on multiple SAT and #SAT datasets.
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