Black-Box Batch Active Learning for Regression

Published: 09 Jul 2023, Last Modified: 09 Jul 2023Accepted by TMLREveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Authors that are also TMLR Expert Reviewers: ~Andreas_Kirsch1
Abstract: Batch active learning is a popular approach for efficiently training machine learning models on large, initially unlabelled datasets by repeatedly acquiring labels for batches of data points. However, many recent batch active learning methods are white-box approaches and are often limited to differentiable parametric models: they score unlabeled points using acquisition functions based on model embeddings or first- and second-order derivatives. In this paper, we propose black-box batch active learning for regression tasks as an extension of white-box approaches. Crucially, our method only relies on model predictions. This approach is compatible with a wide range of machine learning models, including regular and Bayesian deep learning models and non-differentiable models such as random forests. It is rooted in Bayesian principles and utilizes recent kernel-based approaches. This allows us to extend a wide range of existing state-of-the-art white-box batch active learning methods (BADGE, BAIT, LCMD) to black-box models. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through extensive experimental evaluations on regression datasets, achieving surprisingly strong performance compared to white-box approaches for deep learning models.
Certifications: Expert Certification
License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
Submission Length: Regular submission (no more than 12 pages of main content)
Assigned Action Editor: ~Yingnian_Wu1
Submission Number: 872