P$^2$OT: Progressive Partial Optimal Transport for Deep Imbalanced Clustering

Published: 16 Jan 2024, Last Modified: 05 Mar 2024ICLR 2024 posterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
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Keywords: deep imbalanced clustering, optimal transport
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Abstract: Deep clustering, which learns representation and semantic clustering without labels information, poses a great challenge for deep learning-based approaches. Despite significant progress in recent years, most existing methods focus on uniformly distributed datasets, significantly limiting the practical applicability of their methods. In this paper, we first introduce a more practical problem setting named deep imbalanced clustering, where the underlying classes exhibit an imbalance distribution. To tackle this problem, we propose a novel pseudo-labeling-based learning framework. Our framework formulates pseudo-label generation as a progressive partial optimal transport problem, which progressively transports each sample to imbalanced clusters under prior distribution constraints, thus generating imbalance-aware pseudo-labels and learning from high-confident samples. In addition, we transform the initial formulation into an unbalanced optimal transport problem with augmented constraints, which can be solved efficiently by a fast matrix scaling algorithm. Experiments on various datasets, including a human-curated long-tailed CIFAR100, challenging ImageNet-R, and large-scale subsets of fine-grained iNaturalist2018 datasets, demonstrate the superiority of our method.
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Primary Area: unsupervised, self-supervised, semi-supervised, and supervised representation learning
Submission Number: 3053