Keywords: Hypergraph neural networks, multiset functions, deep sets, set transformer
Abstract: Hypergraphs are used to model higher-order interactions amongst agents and there exist many practically relevant instances of hypergraph datasets. To enable the efficient processing of hypergraph data, several hypergraph neural network platforms have been proposed for learning hypergraph properties and structure, with a special focus on node classification tasks. However, almost all existing methods use heuristic propagation rules and offer suboptimal performance on benchmarking datasets. We propose AllSet, a new hypergraph neural network paradigm that represents a highly general framework for (hyper)graph neural networks and for the first time implements hypergraph neural network layers as compositions of two multiset functions that can be efficiently learned for each task and each dataset. The proposed AllSet framework also for the first time integrates Deep Sets and Set Transformers with hypergraph neural networks for the purpose of learning multiset functions and therefore allows for significant modeling flexibility and high expressive power. To evaluate the performance of AllSet, we conduct the most extensive experiments to date involving ten known benchmarking datasets and three newly curated datasets that represent significant challenges for hypergraph node classification. The results demonstrate that our method has the unique ability to either match or outperform all other hypergraph neural networks across the tested datasets: As an example, the performance improvements over existing methods and a new method based on heterogeneous graph neural networks are close to $4\%$ on the Yelp and Zoo datasets, and $3\%$ on the Walmart dataset.
One-sentence Summary: We propose a multiset function framework for hypergraph neural networks.
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