Keywords: Computational capability, Data heterogeneity, Masking vectors, Personalized federated learning
TL;DR: We propose PerFedMask to address both the data and device heterogeneity issues in federated learning.
Abstract: Recently, various personalized federated learning (FL) algorithms have been proposed to tackle data heterogeneity. To mitigate device heterogeneity, a common approach is to use masking. In this paper, we first show that using random masking can lead to a bias in the obtained solution of the learning model. To this end, we propose a personalized FL algorithm with optimized masking vectors called PerFedMask. In particular, PerFedMask facilitates each device to obtain its optimized masking vector based on its computational capability before training. Fine-tuning is performed after training. PerFedMask is a generalization of a recently proposed personalized FL algorithm, FedBABU (Oh et al., 2022). PerFedMask can be combined with other FL algorithms including HeteroFL (Diao et al., 2021) and Split-Mix FL (Hong et al., 2022). Results based on CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 datasets show that the proposed PerFedMask algorithm provides a higher test accuracy after fine-tuning and lower average number of trainable parameters when compared with six existing state-of-the-art FL algorithms in the literature. The codes are available at https://github.com/MehdiSet/PerFedMask.
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