Keywords: Medical Image Synthesis, Ultrasound Fetal Imaging, GANs
Abstract: Prenatal ultrasound imaging is the first-choice modality to assess fetal health. Medical image datasets for AI and ML methods must be diverse (i.e. diagnoses, diseases, pathologies, scanners, demographics, etc), however there are few public ultrasound fetal imaging datasets due to insufficient amounts of clinical data, patient privacy, rare occurrence of abnormalities in general practice, and limited experts for data collection and validation. To address such data scarcity, we proposed generative adversarial networks (GAN)-based models, diffusion-super-resolution-GAN and transformer-based-GAN, to synthesise images of fetal ultrasound brain planes from one public dataset. We reported that GAN-based methods can generate 256x256 pixel size of fetal ultrasound trans-cerebellum brain image plane with stable training losses, resulting in lower Fr\'echet inception distance (FID) values for diffusion-super-resolution-GAN (average 7.04 and lower FID 5.09 at epoch 10) than the FID values of transformer-based-GAN (average 36.02 and lower 28.93 at epoch 60). The results of this work illustrate the potential of GAN-based methods to synthesise realistic high-resolution ultrasound images, leading to future work with other fetal brain planes, anatomies, devices and the need of a pool of experts to evaluate synthesised images. Code, data and other resources to reproduce this work are available at https://github.com/budai4medtech/midl2023.